Industrial installations with a potentially large impact on the environment are subject to the European Industrial Emission Directive (IED). The IED (2010/75/EU) is the successor of the IPPC-directive (directive concerning the integrated pollution prevention and control, 96/61/EG, codified 2008/1/EG, and obligates the EU member states to regulate large environmental polluting companies with an integrated permit which is based on the best available techniques (BAT). These obligations concern all installations where one or more of the activities included in annex I of the directive are carried out (so-called IPPC activities).
As part of the IED-, the BAT-reference documents (BREFs) are set up on a European level. These BREFs give an overview of the BAT for a specific activity, and which environmental performances can be achieved with these BAT. BAT conclusions are an important part of the BREFs. Under the IED, these form the reference for establishing permit conditions for IPPC installations in Europe. In Flanders, the permit conditions thus established are imposed via Title III of the VLAREM or via the environmental permit.