Soil remediation techniques

Soil structure and permeability

Enter the properties of the soil layer within which the pollutant is found. Please note: Each polluted soil layer must be entered into the system individually; thus, if part of a polluted soil layer lies beneath a building and part of it does not, these must be entered as separate layers. The system does not take possible interaction between layers into account.
Depth of the layer [?]
level of polluted layer?
0-2m2-5m5-30m> 30m
Ground water level
< 7 m> 7m
Saturated with water?
yesno
Texture [?]
Texture is the ratio between soil particles of different sizes. The soil contains a mixture of different particle sizes and are named after the fraction that is dominating. Sand particles are 0.05 to 2 mm. They are visible to the eye and feel granular. Particles that are larger than sand are called gravel. Loam particles are smaller than sand: 0.002 to 0.05 mm. They are not visible to the eye. The smallest particles are clay, < 0.002 mm. They feel soft and sticky.
homogeneous - permeable
homogeneous - impermeable
heterogeneous - permeable
heterogeneous - impermeable
Iron content of the ground water
< 15 mg/l> 15 mg/l
Sulphate content of the ground water
< 200 mg/l> 200 mg/l

Characteristics

State whether it concerns soil purification, ground-water purification, LNAPL(Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) or DNAPL (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid). Of course, inconsistencies should not be entered, for example, ground water purification in the unsaturated zone, or a DNAPL with heavy metals.
Characteristics
mobile NAPL
mobile DNAPL
soil pollution
ground water pollution

Surrounding

Distance to buildings
building located on the pollution
building located neared to the pollution than the depth of the polluted zone
building located further than the depth of the polluted zone
Ground coverage of the site
hardened
not-hardened

Substances

Which substances are present in the entered soil layer?
Mineral oil (general) [?]
Mixture of hydrocarbon compounds contain both petroleum and derivatives. If the soil is polluted with petrol, diesel or heavy fuels and mineral oils also the concentration of aromatics needs to be considered.
presentnot present
t/m C13
presentnot present
C14 t/m C25
presentnot present
from C25
presentnot present
Aromates: bezene, toluene, ethylbenzene en xylene [?]
This group is also called volatile aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatics are used as e.g. solvent voor resins, grease, etc.; solvent for paint, adhesives and colorants; degreasing, in petrol, kerosine, etc.
presentnot present
Volatile organo-chloric compounds (general) [?]
e.g. PCE (tertrachloroethylene) and TCI (trichloroethene): these substances are used as degreasing agnets or cleaning agents in laundry indutry, metal industry and printing industry; chlorobenzenes: these substances are used as pesticides or as raw material to produce pesticides.
presentnot present
mono- en dichloor benzene
presentnot present
tri, tetra, penta, hexa chloor benzene
presentnot present
dichloormethane
presentnot present
dichloorethane (DCA)
presentnot present
vinylchloride
presentnot present
trichloormethane (chloroform)
presentnot present
trichloorethane (TCA)
presentnot present
tetrachloormethane (TETRA)
presentnot present
per, tri- en dichloorethene
presentnot present
Non-volatile organo chloric compound (general) [?]
e.g. chlorophenols: with the most common known pentachlorophenol which is used in wood protection agents against molds; polychorobephenyl (PCBs) are oily fluids which are used in transformers and condensers due to there good electric-isolating characteristics and resistance against high temperatures; hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) , .. are pesticides that belong the the organochloro compounds
presentnot present
DDE/DDT
presentnot present
hexachloorcyclohexane (HCH)
presentnot present
hexachloorbenzene (HCB)
presentnot present
PCB
presentnot present
chloorfenole
presentnot present
dioxines en furan
presentnot present
Heavy metals (general) [?]
Heavy metals are defined as metals with a density of 5g/cm3 or more. Metals are used in alloys, colourants, inks, catalysts, accumulators and batteries.
presentnot present
cadmium (Cd)
presentnot present
Nickel (Ni)
presentnot present
Mercury (Hg)
presentnot present
Chrome (Cr)
presentnot present
Coper (Cu)
presentnot present
Lead (Pb)
presentnot present
Zinc (Zn)
presentnot present
Arsene (As)
presentnot present
Pak's (general) [?]
Some 250 different substances belong to the poly-aromatic hydrocarbon compounds group, al built out of 2 or more benzene rings. PACs are found in asphalt, bitumen, pitch, different types of oils and roof coverings.
presentnot present
2-ring
presentnot present
3-ring
presentnot present
4 en 5 ring
presentnot present
Cyanides (general) [?]
Cynanide is or was used in a number of processes or is formed as by-product. Examples are: metal teratment (hardening, coatings and colouring); production of plastics and colourants, coal gassification
presentnot present
complexe cyanides
presentnot present
free cyanides
presentnot present
Thio-cyanate
presentnot present
Alcoholes en polair solvents (general)
presentnot present
methanol, ethanol, propanol en butanol
presentnot present
MIBK
presentnot present
MTBE
presentnot present

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions consist of the remediation objective and the time span. Time span is, in principle, only important for the removal remediation objective.
Remediation objectives [?]
Remediation objectives are put down in the soil remediation plan. The type of pollution defines the type of remediation objective, and will thus have an impact on the type of technique used.
control of evaporation
control of dispersion through ground water
control of blowing away
removal to target value
removal to soil remediation value
removal to risk limit value
prevention of leaching
prevention of physical contact with the pollution
Time frame
0-1 year
1-5 year
5-30 year